Sat, 13 May 2017 19:21:06 +0000Rural America ~ Desert SW Road-Trips: Four Corners
Here’s a sad story: Imagine driving through a typical developed section of the United States. You drive by a continuous series of shopping complexes, fast-food joints, theaters, condo developments and all the rest. It’s just the way it is, right?
Now imagine a long-time local in the car with you. Inevitably he or she would be able to point and tell you that not long ago this was all farmland (or forest, or grass meadows, or swampland, or tidal marshes). I’ve heard this told of many areas across the country, and I could tell the story for numerous places that I’m personally familiar with.
America has experienced continuous growth and development for quite some time now, and the effects are many. This blog series is about one of them, the swallowing up of rural farm- and ranch-lands as the suburbs have pushed outward. We’ve lost much of the on-the-land character here, and visitors from other countries, along with younger residents, simply do not know what the country was once like.
Thankfully rural America does still exist in places. But in order to see it, you must be willing to get away from the popular routes and sights. It’s one of those things that is easy to say but much harder to put into effect during a trip. The internet tends to push us into narrow tourist-trails, perhaps more so than travel books and magazines once did. But the internet can also give you ideas for getting off those beaten trails to explore just a little bit of the original character of the country and its people. It’s that rural character that made this country great in the first place.
The last few posts have been exploring the Desert Southwest with some of my favorite road-trips. This post continues with that theme, moving east and south to explore the Four Corners region, especially the native tribal lands of southern Utah, northern Arizona and western New Mexico. It’s part of a big loop starting and ending in Page, Arizona. Next time we’ll cover the southern leg of the loop. If you are flying in and renting a vehicle, your trip could start in Arizona from either Phoenix or Flagstaff. Or you could fly into Albuquerque or Santa Fe, New Mexico and start the loop on the eastern end.
Page to Cortez
Page, Arizona is a little town on the shores of Lake Powell. It’s popular with snowbirds and retirees, but is probably best known as a minor tourist town. It’s the base town for house boat trips on the lake and also for desert tours. The town is set in ridiculously scenic desert, so it’s popular with photographers. There is a balloon fest the first weekend of November (image below).
If you love slot canyons and can’t resist an over-photographed location, visit nearby Antelope Canyon. It’s on Navajo land and a guided tour costs anywhere between $20 and $40, not including the $6 tribal fee. The cheaper option is for the lower canyon while the upper costs more. Both are stunning visually. Another superb but over-shot location is Horseshoe Bend just south of town (image above). The whole area is like candy for landscape shooting. I recommend a sunrise at Lone Rock Beach (image at top). You can camp right there on the beach.
If you have extra time a great side-trip from Page travels Hwy. 89A past Marble Canyon on the Colorado River and up to Jacob Lake. Turn south on 67 and enjoy the cool pine forests on a short jaunt to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. Our trip will take us east into very different country. This is vast, unpeopled desert, dotted with small communities that are a mix of American Indian, white ranchers and more recent immigrants. Many towns are dominated by native tribal people.
Drive to Kayenta, AZ and turn north toward Monument Valley on the Utah border. As you near this iconic place of the west, the terrain begins to look like an old John Ford movie. There is a fee to enter the tribal park, and it is 100% worth it. Make sure and stop for some Navajo fry bread at road-side and chat up the friendly locals. I’ve camped out in the desert here and had locals roll up in their pickup trucks to check me out. Instead of running me off their reservation they’ve been friendly once they know I’m just after a good night’s sleep.
Continue north, making sure to stop and look behind you for the view from the movie Forrest Gump. Mexican Hat on the San Juan River is a tiny town typical of this part of the country. Stop for lunch and learn something from a local or two. Continue up the San Juan to Bluff, another interesting little place. There are spectacular rock art panels along the river just west of Bluff.
A side-trip north toward Blanding, Utah takes you into the recently designated Bear’s Ears National Monument. You can stop along the roadside in this area and walk cross-country, exploring randomly, and come upon ancient Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) ruins and rock art. It’s that rich with prehistoric treasures. A hiking trip into Grand Gulch will take you into the heart of this amazing piece of America. This place has become a political hot-button issue, as the Utah state government attempts to convince the current president (who is sympathetic) to undo its protective Monument status.
Continue east on Hwy. 162 to the Four Corners area. This is where Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona come together, the only place in the country where four states meet. But let’s take a little detour to see some unique native ruins and drive an out-of-the-way little valley lined with pretty ranches and farms. You can turn north on Hwy. 262 or the road a few miles to the east. Or in Bluff just set your GPS to find Hovenweep National Monument.
You’ll come to the main ruins of Hovenweep, where the visitor center and a nice campground are located. A short loop hike takes you around Little Ruin Canyon, where the Ancient Ones built towers of the local stone. Driving the dirt roads north from here will lead you to short hikes that visit other towers (directions at the visitor ctr.). I recommend doing this for the strong feelings you’ll get with nobody else around. The ghosts of a past long before this was called America haunt this lonely region of shallow sandstone canyons.
Retrace your steps back south and find Ismay Trading Post Road (ask a ranger for directions or study the map). Take this straight east into Colorado. It’s a beautiful way to enter the state. You can stop and take a short hike into the public lands of Canyons of the Ancients National Monument on the north side of the road. Too soon you’ll reenter the modern world at Cortez, where you can gas up and stock up.
Cortez is jumping-off point for Mesa Verde National Monument. Learn about the Ancestral Puebloans whose ruins and rock art you’ve already been seeing, and visit their truly amazing cliff dwellings. I recommend not stopping with seeing Cliff Palace but also doing the ranger-guided hike to Balcony House.
Cortez to Santa Fe
From Cortez head south on Hwy. 491 into New Mexico. You will reach the Navajo town of Shiprock. You are now in the nation’s largest American Indian reservation, in both area and population. Navajo Nation covers nearly 30,000 square miles! Nearby sits the “ship of the desert”, Ship Rock. Approach it on undeveloped roads and tracks. But remember you are not technically in the U.S. here. It is Navajo land and you must abide by their rules. On the plus side they are generally very chill and willing to let a person just be.
From Shiprock drive east to Farmington where you have a choice. You can head south on Hwy. 371. then, after about 35 miles, turn left on road 7297. Drive a few miles on the sandy road to parking for Bisti/De Na Zin Wilderness. After hiking through this geological wonderland, continue on the unpaved roads to reach U.S. Hwy. 550. Or you can continue east of Farmington to Hwy. 550 and head south.
Either way I recommend taking the turn off Hwy. 550 for Chaco Canyon. The recognized center of Ancestral Puebloan culture, Chaco is home to a complex of dwellings, rock art and spectacular kivas (excavated places of spiritual practice). The hike out to Penyasco Blanco ruin offers sweeping views of the canyon and passes the famous Supernova pictograph.
Continue southeast on Hwy. 550 to the oddly named town of Cuba, where a turn east on route 126 takes you up into the mountains. The Desert SW is not all desert, especially in New Mexico’s high country. Here you’ll find forest and grassy mountain meadows. In some places ranches are still running cattle according to season as they have done for centuries. In others the land has been protected to preserve its unique plants and animals.
The road ends at Hwy. 4, where you’ll turn left and continue east through Valles Caldera Preserve, a lovely ancient caldera now covered with grass and pine trees. You will finally leave forest and mountain behind when you reach Los Alamos. Still an active research complex, this is where America developed the world’s first atomic weapon.
Continue east until you pass over the Rio Grande at Santa Clara Pueblo. Here you can either turn south and go on into Santa Fe, or turn north on Hwy. 68. The northern detour takes you alongside the beautiful Rio Grande River to the adobe-covered town of Taos, where you can visit the home of Jesse James on a self-guided walking tour of the charming town. Taos Pueblo, a village adjacent to the main town, is a native community that you might consider visiting on a guided tour (click the link).
This leg of our loop ends in Santa Fe, a smallish city with many layers. On the surface it might seem a little too slick with its modern adobe architecture. But this place figures in the history of the Southwest from the very beginning and hosts a diverse population. In North America you simply do not find places with this many layers of history. At the least enjoy a good meal at one of its many restaurants and do a walking tour of downtown’s historic buildings.
Thanks for staying with this series. I’m really getting a kick out of sharing some of my best road-trips through rural America. Have a great weekend and happy shooting!
Sat, 06 May 2017 18:45:08 +0000Rural America ~ Desert Southwest Road-trips: Kanab to Ridgway
America is a big place. There are large swathes of it that retain a rural or even wild character. In the rural areas you’ll primarily see homes surrounded by lawns and landscaping. No garden, no chickens, goats or horses. No dairy cow supplying milk to the family. And in fact little visual evidence of a family. Where are all the kids who once cared for those animals, and after chores roamed the woods and fields? Most likely riding to yet another stop on their busy schedules or inside looking at screens.
Things have obviously changed. But in much of rural America there remains just enough of the traditional character (and characters!) to allow a casual visitor to be transported back to a simpler age. That is what this series of posts is attempting to do, at least with its pictures. Since I believe in passing on some of what I know in this blog and not just waxing lyrical, I’m highlighting a few select road-trips that I’ve done several times, journeys that will get you off the main tourist routes while still hitting popular destinations that in my opinion are not to be missed.
Last time we traveled from one favorite national park to another: Death Valley, California to Zion in Utah. Check out that post. For an introduction to the geography, culture and history of the Desert Southwest, check out the previous post. Now let’s continue our journey through the Southwest, traveling from Kanab, Utah to Ridgway, Colorado.
Kanab to Ridgway
This trip begins where the last one left off, Zion Park. Kanab is a short distance from Zion’s east entrance. Unless you’ve already been there and want to save your time for new places, you’re going to want to begin with that scenic wonder. Kanab is worth visiting for its movie history and small-town vibe. Have breakfast at Nedra’s, where many old-time movie stars chowed down. Rooms are fairly reasonable in town, but if you’re camping a great choice is Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park just north of town (image above).
If you have two or three extra days on your hands, consider volunteering at Best Friends animal shelter a short drive north of Kanab. Click the link to go to their site. You can book it ahead and stay there either in a room or if you have a camper there’s a couple nice sites free for volunteers. It’s the world’s largest true no-kill shelter and houses all manner of orphaned animals from dogs & cats to horses & pot-belly pigs.
If you’re traveling east from Kanab, you have a big decision to make. You can either drive down Hwy. 89 to Lake Powell through Page into northern Arizona. Or you can follow this trip and head north on 89 to join with Hwy. 12 east. Both are spectacular journeys, and with a little time you could go as far as Page and then join this trip by either returning to Kanab or cutting across Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument on one of the rough dirt roads (high-clearance recommended).
So drive north from Kanab on Hwy. 89 and turn east onto one of America’s most scenic roads, Hwy. 12. Head up through Redrock Canyon, stopping to take a short hike through hoodoos that are a preview of Bryce Canyon. After a stop at Bryce a bit further east, continue to Escalante. This is a very small town surrounded by stunning canyon country. Stop and get a feel for what life was like for early pioneers in this isolated spot. Self-reliance is still a prized commodity here, and you will meet some real characters.
There is so much scenery and so many hiking and photographic opportunities in these parts that it is tempting to go off on a wilderness tangent. I did a series on the Grand Staircase, so check that out for a little guidance and some image-inspiration. Continue on to Boulder, a town subtly different than Escalante but still very much tied to its ranching roots. The small towns around here are dependent on the steady stream of seasonal tourists.
Head up over Boulder Mountain, where you have a stupendous view out over the country you’re about to traverse. The unique and spectacular Waterpocket Fold is at your feet up here among the aspens. As you drop off Boulder Mtn., the country becomes greener. Take one of the roads west off the highway and see some of the ranches and farms. With a good map you can easily find your way to the little town of Torrey via the “back door”. Torrey retains most of its original character and is less about tourism than most towns on this route.
Bid a sad adieu to Hwy. 12 where it ends just east of Torrey. Turn right on Hwy. 24 and drop down to Capitol Reef National Park. Here you’ll find orchards and the preserved remains of Mormon homesteads, all clustered along the beautiful Fremont River. Note that instead of going over Boulder Mtn. you can reach Capitol Reef by traveling the amazing Burr Trail. Don’t worry, it’s a road perfectly passable in a passenger car.
Reefs in this part of the world are not underwater. Quirks of the local geology, they are long, steep escarpments that formed a barrier to pioneers traveling westward in wagons. Think of how reefs in the sea form a barrier to boats and you understand the name. In this case the pass through Capitol Reef comes courtesy of the Fremont River.
Going east on Hwy. 24 you enter arid, unpeopled country. It’s the perfect place to prepare for exploring a desert planet, which is why not far off the highway lies the Mars Desert Research Station. You can make an appointment to tour the MDRS. Turn north at Hanksville to stay on Hwy. 24 and travel toward the Interstate along the San Rafael Swell. This is a magical formation to explore, with great canyon hikes. Since it is not protected expect to share it with off-road vehicles, but it is definitely off the tourist track. At its base lie the strange hoodoos of Goblin Valley.
Turn east on I-70 for a short drive to U.S. 191, where you’ll turn south toward Moab. Moab was for most of its life a small remote town. It briefly boomed during the uranium mining boom of the early 1950s. Despite its current tourist-town status, I like Moab. It draws an interesting mix of rock climbers, mountain bikers and off-roaders. Drop in to the Red Rock Cafe for breakfast and you’ll see what I mean.
Of course you’ll want to visit Arches and Canyonlands National Parks. But there are many other worthwhile hikes and bike rides in the region. A great driving loop from Moab heads up over the La Sal Mtns. Loop Road and down to Castle Valley and the Colorado River. Turn east on Hwy. 128 to visit Fisher Towers, then return west along the river back to Moab. Many of the ranches along this route have been converted to guest and dude ranches. But they give you a glimpse into the rural life of SW Utah.
From Moab go south on 191 a short distance to Hwy. 46 and turn left (east) toward La Sal and the Colorado border. Cross out of Utah on a gloriously uncrowded route that becomes increasingly green. You are in a transition now, passing off the Colorado Plateau into the Rocky Mountains.
Drive through tiny settlements with names like Bedrock, Redvale and Placerville, rural Colorado at its best. When faced with confusing junctions, always take the road that heads east. At Placerville, after driving through a lovely little valley lined with Colorado blue spruce, turn east again onto Hwy. 62.
Take Hwy. 62 over Dallas Divide through some of America’s most beautiful rural mountain scenery (images above and below). For a closer look, turn up toward the peaks on the West Fork Road and drive through Ralf Lauren’s spectacular ranch (image at top). To avoid trespassing stay on the road until you reach National Forest land. Back on Hwy. 62, continue on to Ridgway, a still-authentic ranching community. If it’s autumn and the aspens are in leaf, you will run out of space on your camera’s memory card!
An off-pavement loop drive from Ridgway heads east up gravel county road 8 to Owl Creek Pass. You can free-camp up here and then continue north to rejoin pavement near U.S. 50. Turn left (west) here and drive to Montrose, the largest town in these parts. Stock up and then make the short drive back down to Ridgway. I’m going to leave you in Ridgway, which while lovely is rather remote. From here you can go south through the interesting town of Ouray, then over the high passes of the San Juans and down to Durango. You could also head north and east toward Aspen into the high Rockies of western Colorado.
There are two big towns (Durango and Grand Junction) near enough Ridgway to drop the rental and fly out. Denver is farther away but with enough time a trip that begins in Vegas and ends in Denver would be memorable indeed. Despite our little foray into the Rocky Mtns. the next leg of our journey continues the Desert SW theme. We’ll travel south through the Four Corners into New Mexico. Thanks very much for reading and have a great weekend!
Sat, 29 Apr 2017 18:15:12 +0000Rural America: Desert SW Road-trips ~ Death Valley to Zion
The series on rural America continues. The goal is to give you ideas for how to make your trips into the various regions of this huge country about more than ticking off scenic wonders and tourist hot spots. Although America’s rich rural character has been in many areas replaced by suburban sprawl, it remains in more places than you might expect.
This and one or two succeeding posts begins a look at select road trips in the amazing region of the U.S. called the desert southwest (DSW). Check out the last post for an introduction to the DSW. Each time I travel here I find new detours and variations. Some lead to interesting but relatively unknown scenic splendors. But the best thing about these routes is they all reveal rural charms that are easy to miss if you stick to the main highways. So let’s dive right in, starting in the west and moving east.
Death Valley to Zion
Of course any trip through the Desert SW is going to focus at least as much on nature as it does on rural areas. This one is no exception. For the obvious reason of its harshly dry climate, ranching is more important than farming in most areas along this route. Cattle ranching in Nevada and SW Utah takes place largely on public lands. Once in SW Utah you are in an area of the state called Dixie. The town of St. George is large and bustling, but there are plenty of scenic small towns in the area to explore.
Ghost Towns of Death Valley
Start by traveling (if you fly in, from Los Angeles or Las Vegas) to Death Valley National Park in California. It’s one of my favorite places in the world. Here you can alternate rambles across sand dunes at sunrise and hikes through stunning canyons with a visit to a ghost town or two. They are what remains of the gold mining that took place here in the 1800s and early 1900s.
The best known example is Rhyolite, which is not in the park but very accessible just across the Nevada border. Beatty, the town nearby, will give you a glimpse of small-town life in the Great Basin of Nevada. If you’d visited Rhyolite in the 1990s you would have seen an operating mine, and you will see the remnants of this more modern open-pit gold mine in the Bullfrog Hills above the ghost town.
A spectacular pair of ghost towns lie on the opposite, western side of Death Valley, in the Panamint Valley. You can drive right to the first, Ballarat. But if you’re in hiking shape I highly recommend heading up nearby Surprise Canyon, parking at the obvious end of the passable part of the dirt road and continuing on foot.
While it is a spectacular area, realize you will be trekking 10 fairly rugged canyon miles roundtrip. But if you bring a water filter you can carry much less weight in water than usual in these parts. You might even see waterfalls along the way depending on recent storms. Be prepared for thick brush in the canyon bottom. Arriving at Panamint City with its scenic brick smokestack, you’ll experience the real deal. It has a true lonely ghost-town feel.
One more cool “ghost town” to visit in the Death Valley area is Gold Point, Nevada. It is actually north of the park, but if you’re up there to visit Scotty’s Castle anyway, it’s not all that much further. I put ghost town in quotations because a half dozen or so souls live there with the ghosts year-round. You can not only see a historic old-west saloon, you can go in and have a beer!
Rural Southern Nevada
Traveling east across southern Nevada you’ll pass the glitz of Las Vegas. If you stay on the freeway it is a relatively short high-speed cruise along Interstate 15 to St. George, Utah. But consider a short detour north into the rural southern Great Basin. So turn north on U.S. Highway 93 toward the little town of Caliente. Turn south on State Hwy. 317 to make a loop back to Hwy. 93.
Take your time and you’re sure to see a sparsely populated part of Nevada that will make you forget all about the neon phenomenon of Las Vegas. It’s what the Great Basin is all about, what nobody speeding along I-15 could imagine. You can extend your detour north to Cathedral Gorge State Park, an area of badlands with cool little slot canyons. Some of the valleys where cattle roam are surprisingly green and grassy. Others are arid, treeless expanses, with the Great Basin’s characteristic long ranges shimmering in the distance.
Dixie in Utah
Not long after crossing out of Nevada you arrive in bustling St. George, southern Utah’s largest town. St. George is still dominated by its founders the Mormons, but nowadays it’s perhaps best known as a retirement haven. For outsiders, the town is most notable as gateway to southern Utah’s world-famous scenic wonders. Of course you can’t miss Zion National Park once you’re this close. But a destination much nearer to town is the compact but stunning Snow Canyon State Park. In this part of America it’s impossible to miss nature. But remember this series is about where the people of rural America live.
There are several towns surrounding St. George that retain the rural character of Dixie. A drive north to Pine Valley features lovely scenery and the rural charm of this part of Utah. And even in towns just off Interstate 15, places like Leeds and Toquerville, rural character remains. If you get off at Leeds, wander over to the west side of the freeway and up the hill to historic Silver Reef, an old mining town. Also nearby is spectacular Red Cliffs Recreation Area. A very worthwhile canyon hike with a pretty little campground at the trailhead. If you drive to Toquerville, turn north on Spring Rd. to visit Toquerville Falls.
On the way to Zion most visitors race in eager anticipation past the scenic little towns of Virgin and Rockdale. The roadside scenery between Rockdale and Springdale is lovely, especially in autumn (image below). But once in Springdale you’ve entered the chaos of a uniquely American phenomenon: the National Park gateway town.
Polygamy & Canyon Hiking
You can see where some of the Mormon Church’s most devout families live if you drive south of Hurricane (on the way to Zion) on Hwy. 59 to Colorado City on the Arizona border. Keep going and this is an excellent way to travel to the north rim of the Grand Canyon or to Kanab, Utah. Drive around the small town, which is called Hilldale on the Utah side, and you’ll see women in very traditional dress. Polygamy is still widely practiced in these parts. And as Forest Gump said, “that’s all I’m going to say about that.”
If you want to stretch your legs while you’re in the Hilldale/Colo. City area, there is a great canyon hike nearby. Are you detecting a pattern? A nice canyon hike is never far away when you’re traveling in these parts. Drive north of town to the Water Canyon Trailhead. You can get directions on Google Maps, but don’t think that means this is a popular place. It’s more of a local’s hike. The road becomes quite sandy and rutted, but you should be able to make it in a sedan if you go slow.
After parking continue hiking up-canyon to pretty narrows and a small falls, where as the name suggests water usually flows (image above). A short scramble up the left side of the stream takes you past the apparent blockage and on up the canyon. The trail eventually ascends steeply out of the canyon and up onto the mesa above. Looking north you can see the southernmost temples of Zion. Extending the hike this far is for lovers of longer, more rugged hikes.
Thanks for reading this rather long post! This road-trip is definitely one I highly recommend. Plan about two weeks to do it. I’ve met people who have raced through in one week, and that’s including Bryce Canyon! I have trouble getting out of Death Valley in less than a week. Have a great weekend and happy shooting everyone!
Sat, 22 Apr 2017 18:40:50 +0000Rural America: The Desert Southwest
We might as well face it. America is no longer what it once was. Not long ago this was a country that relied on small-scale farming and ranching. They fed the cities with their increasingly important manufacturing economies. Perhaps more importantly they helped to form the country’s very identity. Farms, ranches and small towns have traditionally been a well that we drew upon to create a dynamic, growing nation. Many American thinkers and inventors were born and raised in small-town farming communities. To take a more specific example, American fighter pilots in both world wars learned their bold flying skills as young men in crop-dusting planes. There are countless other examples.
Nearly every region of the country has become more developed and populated. Cities have grown steadily; suburban areas surrounding them have grown even faster. And it’s these so-called exurban areas that have spilled out into formerly rural areas. Large parts of rural America have literally been paved over, changing them for the foreseeable future. But it’s not all gone, not by a long shot. You can still experience much of this country’s rural charm if you’re willing to leave the cities, get off the main highways and slow down.
And that is what this series is all about: travelling off the beaten track to experience some of the country’s rural charm. The introductory post discussed the growing rural-urban divide in America, but Part II left politics behind and focused on my home-region, the Pacific Northwest. This post will zero in on a unique part of the country: the amazing Desert Southwest.
Geography & History
The unique geography of the Desert Southwest is centered on an enormous geographic feature called the Colorado Plateau. This large chunk of elevated land extends across southwest Colorado, southern Utah and northern parts of Arizona and New Mexico. But the desert SW region extends west of the Plateau into the southern Great Basin of Nevada and SE California.
It also includes the low, hot deserts of southern Arizona, and actually continues south into Mexico, though it’s a different culture altogether there. Anyone considering a trip into the far southwest of the U.S., however, should seriously consider Baja California as an extension. The peninsula is amazing, the people friendly, and it is far safer than mainland Mexico at the moment.
What draws visitors today presented challenges to early explorers and settlers. It is an arid region of vast treeless plains on one hand, and steep bare-rock canyons and mountains on the other. Rivers are often incised into inaccessible canyons and follow torturous routes. One can’t easily follow a river for a distance then take a shortcut across a meander to save days of travel. And if you do manage to exit a precipitous canyon, water is very difficult to find.
Ancient Ones to Spain to Mexico to USA
This region has been occupied for thousands of years by native groups. Spanish explorers entered the region beginning in the 16th century. During America’s westward expansion in the 1800s, the Desert Southwest was merely a barrier to cross in order to reach California. Most of it then belonged to Spain, and all roads led to Santa Fe. This still-beautiful city was the only significant settlement in the entire region. Today you can see some of the earliest buildings constructed by white people on the North American continent in Santa Fe and Taos, New Mexico (see image below).
But you do not have to travel very far to see houses built long before that. Chaco Canyon and other sites are what remains of the ancient ones. Ancestral Puebloans (aka Anasazi), and before them the Basketmakers, inhabited these parts for thousands of years. They had success farming maize (corn) and beans, and they even mined for copper, silver and gold.
Despite the area’s harsh climate and geography, this region has the longest history of European incursion in the west. That is because the Catholic Church in Spain, specifically the Jesuits, established missions here going back to the 16th century. Santa Fe was founded in 1608. That’s 12 years before 102 travellers aboard a ship called the Mayflower landed at Plymouth Rock.
Santa Fe is the oldest capital city on American soil. It served as the capital of New Mexico for Spain, then Mexico after their war of independence. It was not long Mexico’s, as in the 1840s first Texas, then the U.S. military fought for control of New Mexico. It was ceded to the U.S. in 1848 after the Mexican-American War.
Taos to the north is also very old. The famous American frontiersman, Kit Carson, who first arrived in Santa Fe in 1826 and made his fame as a mountain man, scout and fierce fighter, lived there for years with his Mexican wife Josefa. They had eight children together.
The famous Santa Fe trail, like the Oregon Trail to the north, began as a trading route that later became much more important as a route carrying American settlers west. Unlike the Oregon Trail it traveled through truly hostile (American) Indian country. The Apaches and Comanche did not tolerate trespassers and were feared much more than most tribes to the north (some Sioux bands excepted).
Mining in the Southwest
The Desert Southwest has from the beginning of European exploration been a target of mining. While ranching and farming faced the realities of the region’s dry, harsh climate and geography, mining had “only” to overcome the fierce Apache. I mentioned the early missionary efforts by Spain. If you know anything about imperial Spain, you know their desire to bring savage tribes into the Catholic fold was only surpassed by their lust for silver and gold.
When the U.S. took control of the Southwest, mining continued. But since the American military generally had more success putting down native tribes than had the Spanish and Mexicans, and because the U.S. government put in place several incentives and subsidies (e.g. the 1872 Mining Act), mining bloomed in the region. For visitors interested in history and in exploring rural parts of the region, the remains of mines large and small are not hard to find. And so are the ghost towns that once boomed in support of the miners.
In the early 1850s Mormons began to settle the Desert Southwest. Originally settling the Salt Lake Valley, they soon pushed south into canyon country. The remains of their homesteads are visible in many places, and often in very scenic locations (see image below). Like the Catholics long before them, they too founded missions in order to convert the natives.
Cowboys & Indians
One final piece of the region’s history has perhaps received much more attention than it deserves from a historical perspective. Stories of the old west that romanticize cowboys and outlaws have always had the power to capture our attention. In the Desert SW you can visit the old hideouts of legends like Billy the Kid, Butch Cassidy, James Averill and the Hole in the Wall Gang. It’s also easy to visit old movie sets and eat at the same cafes, drink at the same bars as did old-time movie stars like John Wayne and Gregory Peck.
For example, Kanab, Utah celebrates the era of Hollywood westerns at the same time it enjoys its location close to scenic wonders like Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks. Monument Valley is a place where the Navajo Nation shares the spotlight not only with the dramatic scenery but with the area’s history as setting for the famous collaboration between director John Ford and actor John Wayne.
Road Tripping the Southwest
It is somewhat overwhelming to contemplate a trip to this enormous region. You can too easily bite off more than you can chew. And you can’t have a good time if you’re behind the wheel for your whole vacation. Decide what you’d most like to see and how much time you have. Then decide whether you can swing several trips (preferable) or must choose the one area that most ignites your imagination.
In succeeding posts we will travel from west to east in a series of road trips. They are those I have done, many several times, and I chose them because they not only visit spectacular natural wonders but take off down two-lane country roads with only locals (mostly bovine) for company. The idea is to get you off the beaten track to see the charm of the rural Southwest. I’ll repeat myself: whatever you do don’t try to see everything at once. You can’t travel, for example, from Anza Borrego in California’s Mojave to New Mexico’s high desert and hope to see much outside of gas stations and roadside eateries. That is, unless you have at least 3 months to travel. Thanks for reading!
Sat, 08 Apr 2017 17:55:51 +0000Rural America, Part II: The Pacific Northwest
America is still largely a rural nation. And not just in terms of area. Many states lack major cities and most people still live rurally. In states with metropolises, a well-documented trend, the return of Americans to city centers, has been going on for some time. But another trend has continued unnoticed, and it involves far greater numbers of people. Suburbs have expanded into more traditional rural areas, places once dominated by farming and ranching. These so-called exurbs sit some distance from a city but are still connected to it in many ways.
While some of the exurbs resemble true suburbs and should probably be described as quasi-rural, many actually have a strong countryside feel. They’re usually centered around small towns that retain much of their original character. As mentioned in the last post, those living here are an important political force these days, as witness the last election.
In many exurbs it is only a matter of time before they lose any remnant rural feel. A progressive expansion, fed in large part by retiring baby-boomers but also by steady population growth, is pushing aside America’s original rural character. But this blog series is not about bemoaning that loss. I prefer to celebrate what is left, which while inevitably changed from the old days, is still very much intact.
Seeing Rural America – The Pacific Northwest
Let’s start out in a part of the west that will always be special to me. If you have read this blog for awhile, you know that Oregon is where my heart lies. It’s a place I’ll always call home. I was born and raised on the east coast, but I’ve lived by far most of my years there. I’m currently living in Florida, in self-imposed exile. But I’ll return someday.
DOWN (UP) THE WILLAMETTE
In order to see some of the prime farmland of that drew early settlers to this territory on the Oregon Trail (see the Addendum below), start in Portland and drive south up the Willamette River. I know, south upriver sounds strange. Avoid Interstate 5 wherever possible. Instead take the back roads, hopping back and forth over the river using the few ferries that remain (Canby, Wheatland). Visit Aurora, and Silverton, stretching your legs and being wowed on a hike in Silver Falls State Park near Silverton. Continue south past Eugene, saying goodbye to the Willamette as it curves east into the Cascades. The Cottage Grove area is famous for its covered bridges, so get hold of a map and enjoy the photo opps.!
Keep going south, making sure to stop at the Rice Hill exit off I5. Here you should partake of Umpqua ice cream the way it should be eaten. Delicious! Visit the little town of Oakland just north of Roseburg, where I lived for a time. Then divert west from Sutherlin on Fort McKay Road. to the Umpqua River. Then wind down the river on Tyee Road. Drive slow or better yet, do this on a bicycle!
You can keep going to the coast or return to I5 on Hwy. 138. Another detour takes you east from Roseburg up the North Umpqua to Diamond Lake and the north end of Crater Lake. If you’d rather stick with the rural theme and save nature for later, keep going south and visit the rather large but still charming town of Ashland, where a famous Shakespeare Festival happens every summer.
THE OLYMPIC PENINSULA
Let’s not forget the great state of Washington. One of my favorite places in the world is the Olympic Peninsula. It can be visited on a road trip that takes in both nature and rural charm. The towns are spaced far apart here and Olympic National Park covers much of the northern peninsula. But lovely farms still lap the slopes of the Olympic Mountains and talkative waitresses serve pie at cafes in towns like Forks, which retain much of their timber-town flavour. Everybody still knows everybody in these towns.
Lake Crescent (image below) is incredibly scenic and a great place for a swim. At dusk, in certain light, you can sit lakeside and easily transport yourself back to quiet summer evenings at the lake. I wonder when vacations stopped being full of simple pleasures like jumping off a tire swing, fried chicken on a screened porch and word games in the dark, and became all about ticking off bucket lists and posting selfies?
Even areas quite close to the metropolis of Seattle retain much of their charm. Take the back roads directly east of the city and drop into the valley of the Snowqualmie River. Take Hwy. 203 north or south through Carnation, site of the original dairy farm of the same name (remember?). Generally speaking you need to travel either east or, overwater via ferry, west of Seattle and the I5 corridor in order to experience rural western Washington.
I’d feel bad if I didn’t mention the forgotten half of the Pacific NW. It encompasses an enormous region east of the Cascades, one that retains in many places nearly all of its rural character. The Palouse is a perfect example. Lying in southeastern Washington and far western Idaho, the Palouse is wheat-farming at its purest. It is an expansive area of rolling hills, backroads and picture-perfect barns. Despite having become very popular with landscape photographers in recent years, its size means it always feels quiet and uncrowded. I won’t say anymore about it since I posted a mini-series on the Palouse geared toward anyone contemplating a photo-tour. Check that out if you’re curious.
There are so many other routes to explore in the Pacific NW that will allow you to experience the unique flavour of each region. For example a fantastic road trip, again from Portland, is to travel east over Mount Hood. But instead of continuing to Madras, turn off busy Hwy. 26 at easy-to-miss Hwy. 216. Drop into the high desert and visit the little burg of Tygh Valley. Continue east to Maupin on the Deschutes River, famous for its trout fishing and whitewater rafting. Then drive over Bakeoven Road to historic sheep central, Shaniko. Then drop east down twisty Hwy. 218 to Fossil and on to the Painted Hills. This tour, by the way, is popular with motorcyclists in the know. Thanks for reading and have a fun weekend!
Addendum: Pacific NW History
I’ve always vaguely resented the fact that the Pacific NW is divided into two states. I think the Oregon Territory should have been left as Oregon, no Washington. To make 50 states we could have split off northern California (plus far SW Oregon) and called it the state of Jefferson. I know a bunch of people who would be very happy with that!
Native tribes have occupied this region for thousands and thousands of years. In fact some of the earliest remains of paleo-indians in North America come from eastern Oregon and Washington. Now a semi-desert, back then it was significantly wetter, with large lakes full of waterfowl, and the rocky hills bursting forth every spring with all sorts of edible plants.
White Europeans began to take an interest in the area very early on in the 1700s. But they only visited by sea. To the north, British fur trading companies sent parties into the Canadian part of the Pacific Northwest eco-region. But it would not be until Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led a party of young, energetic men down the Columbia River to the Pacific Coast near what is now the little town of Astoria, Oregon in 1804 that the young country signalled its intention to make the region part of America.
In the mid-1800s mountain men of the west, with beaver all but trapped out in many areas, turned to guiding settlers west along the Oregon Trail. The destination these hardy families had in mind was the rich farmland along the Willamette and other rivers of the Oregon Territory. Some never made it all the way, instead stopping in cooler, drier areas like the Baker Valley of eastern Oregon and the Palouse, a dryland farming area in Washington.
Timber harvesting, farming and ranching have long been the mainstays of the Pacific Northwest. If you’ve never read Sometimes a Great Notion by Ken Keasey you should do so. It is expertly written and imparts an authentic look at traditional family-based logging in Oregon. The movie is top-notch as well.
But times have changed. The mills are shut down in most places. Private timber lands are still harvested but with few exceptions federal National Forests are for reasons both environmental and economic no longer being cut. The ways in which people here make a living have largely changed from natural resource-based to a mix of technology, tourism and a variety of service jobs.
Sat, 01 Apr 2017 16:20:50 +0000Rural America, Part I
After a short break I’m going to return to blogging with a change in focus. I’m getting away from photography tips and how-to for awhile. In all honesty I was beginning to think that most of what I could impart in terms of photography expertise I’d already set down in this blog. Search “Friday Foto Talk” in the blue bar at left to see how many articles I’ve posted (hint, it’s a lot!). Of course there is always more to relate, and the fact that I’ve been in a photo drought probably has the most to do with my waning interest in Foto Talk posts.
What I will continue to do is feature some of my favorite images. I hope you enjoy them, and remember if you’re interested in hanging one or two on your wall or otherwise using any for other purposes, just contact me. I’ll be glad to quote a good price.
Politics and the Urban-Rural Divide
Since the last election in this country I’ve been thinking often about rural America, in particular the ways in which it has changed. If you live in another country, or are a newcomer to the U.S., you probably became quite confused when we elected Donald Trump for president (someone I usually call “Mr. Pumpkinhead”). He obviously sold a bill of goods in order to get elected. In some ways that should come as no surprise. He is, if anything, an accomplished con artist.
But it goes much deeper than that. I’ve traveled extensively through small-town America in recent years, and I’ve discovered that things have changed in significant ways. I did a similar amount of road-tripping in the 1980s, and while some things remain the same, a lot has changed. Of course I’ve changed a lot too. But it’s hard to deny what has happened over the past 40 years, and especially in the last decade or so.
America is politically and culturally polarized to a great degree right now. This divide has always existed of course, but the degree of mutual distrust along with a general inability to find common ground, or even to simply speak to each other is unusual and disturbing. The divide doesn’t simply equate to city versus rural. Even within metropolitan areas, a divide exists between those living closer to the center and those in the outer suburbs and bedroom communities. This last factor had much to do with D.T. being elected president. Without those suburban voters he would have never won. There simply are far too few people in truly rural areas of this country to get anybody elected president on their own.
This old mill and accompanying covered bridge lies in eastern Missouri and is protected as part of a historic district.
In general the more liberal Americans live in cities and (more extensively) on both coasts. The rural west, the southeast and (with a few notable exceptions, California being a big one), outer suburbia throughout the country is where conservatives are concentrated. But today’s conservatism would be unrecognizable to conservatives of just a few generations ago. Mr. Pumpkinhead was no conservative before he decided to run for president, and it was only as the campaign ran along, and especially now that he’s in office, that he played chameleon. He is now a prisoner of stronger forces than he in the legislative branch and among the super-rich.
Politics, however, is not where I want to go in this blog series. I find the nature of people and their communities to be of much more interest. Rural America has traditionally been a place where people move at a slower pace; where they are more trusting and welcoming of others, including travellers and strangers. In that way it is not much different than any other country. For instance if you’re French or have traveled much in France, try to say with a straight face that Parisians are as friendly and easy to get along with as the people of the countryside along the northern flanks of the Pyrenees.
I’ve said enough to serve as an introduction. Next time let’s dive into the details and look at different parts of rural America and the important ways in which they have changed over the years. I hope you get away from work and responsibilities this weekend to have some fun. Thanks for reading and happy shooting!
The rural Willamette Valley of Oregon was the destination of pioneers who journeyed the Oregon Trail in the1800s.
Fri, 10 Mar 2017 17:41:09 +0000Friday Foto Talk: Drought Blues
Hello everyone and Happy Friday!! I’m in the midst of a significant shooting drought. A number of things all combined are preventing me from shooting, but most of it is down to a simple lack of desire to shoot the subjects around me. I am currently working full-time and in an area not typically known for its nature photography. But don’t get me wrong. I’m not offering any excuses whatsoever, and freely admit that I’m not taking advantage of the time and opportunities that I’m getting.
I believe very strongly that it is never a good thing to force yourself into something if you’re not “feeling it”. I figure it this way: if you are going out to shoot things that don’t particularly interest you, in light that does not get your photographer pulse going, then the results are most likely going to be bland. And why do bland photography? It makes little sense to me.
Now I realize that you may worry that your skills are going to erode while waiting for the subjects to appear and the motivation to return. If you are still a novice and very much learning, this may be a valid concern. But for the most part it is a non-issue. You’ll get it back soon after you start shooting again. Besides, you can always read books on photography, whether instructional or illustrating the works of other photographers. You can also keep your observational senses sharp by remembering to be a keen observer – of things, people & animals, and of light, whether you have a camera or not.
So I’m going to post a couple images I stumbled upon that I didn’t process until now. They’re from a few years ago, in the Medicine Bow Mountains of Colorado. What a view the builders of this cabin had! Have a wonderful weekend and happy shooting!
Fri, 03 Mar 2017 15:45:44 +0000Friday Foto Talk: Alternate Versions III – Review
At the end of a winter’s day skiing, this is looking south toward Mt. Jefferson from iconic Timberline Lodge, Oregon.
This is the 3rd and final part of my little series on shooting alternate versions of the same basic subject. Check out Part I and Part II for the nuts and bolts of varying composition and other factors just enough to create alternates without completely changing the image. Today I want to discuss a very important part of alternate versions: the review. This is where a lot of novice photographers tend to become frustrated, so this post includes some basic advice designed to help you use precious review time wisely.
Last time I mentioned how it’s important at first to be aware of why you are shooting an alternate of the same subject. It could be as simple as grabbing a quick vertical. Or it could be a version that concentrates attention on one particularly strong subject by using a large aperture, thus throwing the background out of focus. Or you can change multiple things about the image, getting low and close while rotating to horizontal, zooming out a bit, and including less sky.
Review on the LCD
It’s a good idea to think about why you shot different versions when you review the images later, whether on your camera’s LCD screen or on the computer monitor. Speaking of the LCD, I see plenty of photographers checking out their photos during the shoot. That is fine if you’re checking things like focus and exposure; in other words, making sure you don’t need to re-shoot. Or if you want to get a human subject more interested in the shoot. But don’t take too much time looking at the back of the camera. Avoid the trap of getting too caught up in review when you should be concentrating on your subject and the light.
I try to review the images on my camera’s LCD very soon after shooting. I do this not only to delete images with obvious problems right away, in order to make more room on the card. But I also like doing a quick inventory of my alternate versions while the shoot is still fresh. It is easier than you think to delete images you should have kept. Unlike a computer, your camera doesn’t have a trashcan where you can recover deleted images. It’s forever!
For example, you might think you have useless repeats of the shot when you actually had in mind at the time good reasons to capture an alternate version. Maybe your reasoning was unconscious and maybe it wasn’t. But if it was, reviewing on your LCD soon after the shoot has the effect of bringing it right up to the surface of your mind. I don’t always keep alternates at this stage. Sometimes I realize my reason for the alternate was rather superficial.
Review on the Computer
No matter how conscious you are while out shooting, when you’re viewing and rating the different versions on the computer later, deciding which to keep, it’s helpful to note what sets each alternate version apart. The differences are often subtle but important for what you’re trying to get across in an image. Were you trying to emphasize an interesting foreground with an alternate version? Next time out will you get low and close while the light is at its best instead of doing that as an afterthought?
While it’s perfectly natural and appropriate to prefer one version over another, be careful about your judgments. For example you may prefer the vertical version of a scene you just shot in dramatic sidelight. But that doesn’t mean you should always photograph scenes like it vertically. Say you return in softer, more subtle light. The horizontal may turn out to be the better choice.
Another reason to avoid overemphasizing personal preference is the existence of considerations that have nothing to do with whether one version is better than another. A horizontal version, for example, may obviously look better because of layering or other characteristics of the scene. But what if someone loves the image and wants to frame and hang it in a place that will fit a vertical but not a horizontal? Or what if a magazine likes it but needs one that has more negative space? That’s yet another way to shoot an alternate, by the way. By zooming out and/or flipping the camera to include more blank sky, water, or other similarly plain space, you allow room for type, mastheads and the like.
Using Review to Grow
As you review more and more shoots you’ll naturally learn which kinds of images you like better for which kinds of subject and light. You might notice yourself gradually shooting slightly fewer alternate versions. But the idea behind doing alternate versions is to increase not decrease your options.
Although learning your preferences is a good thing, don’t over-generalize and end up missing opportunities. It’s important to realize that every scene and every moment’s light and mood is unique. Also unique is the message you want to get across in the image. Alternate versions can help you accomplish this most important of photography goals, but only if you do them.
One thing I’ve learned over time is not to force myself to judge when I’m reviewing images on the computer. Of course I do mostly prefer one shot over others, and one version of that shot over alternate versions. But when there’s no clear winner I don’t spend a lot of time forcing myself to decide. I just give the two an equal number of stars, label them both with copy names (a field in Lightroom just below the filename), and move on.
Most important is to keep an open mind. Open to other possibilities while you’re out there shooting, and open to different ways of evaluating images on the computer. As with all thoughtful post-shot review, considering your reasons for creating alternate versions can inform your next shooting session in interesting ways. It can also force you to grow as a photographer. For example you might find yourself better defining your style. Shooting and then reviewing different versions could lead you to explore a certain way of shooting in more depth. Thanks so much for reading and I hope your weekend is a fun one. Happy shooting!
Wed, 22 Feb 2017 17:58:35 +0000Wordless Wednesday: Evening on the Columbia River
Sat, 18 Feb 2017 20:46:10 +0000Foto Talk: Alternate Versions, Part II
This is the second of three parts on creating alternate versions of the same basic image. Definitely check out Part I; these are meant to go together. Alternate versions are not totally different compositions, or one shot looking one direction and one the other. They are those images you may group together on the screen to review and compare.
Creating alternate versions can be as simple as shooting one horizontal and one vertical. Or it could be as complicated as shooting a dozen versions all with different combinations of variables. And speaking of those variables, let’s pick up where we left off last time and look at more ways to vary a landscape image.
- Focal Length. Changing focal length by a lot changes the whole image, by a lot. But we’re talking about alternate versions of the same image, so think zooming in or out by only modest amounts. The idea is to keep the main elements of the scene the same but perhaps include or exclude subsidiary elements. It’s similar in some ways to moving toward or away from the foreground, but although it’s often mistakenly thought that the two are identical, they will yield a different look.
- Depth of Field (DOF). Varying how much of the scene is in focus is something many people don’t consider for landscapes. Most of us always try for the maximum, sharp from front to back. But sometimes it’s interesting to limit depth of field for a shot or two after you get the standard landscape. If you are limiting DOF you may also vary the place where you are focusing. For maximum DOF you really don’t have much choice for point of focus; that is, there is a ‘right’ place to focus (the hyperfocal distance).
- Exposure Time. Another under-appreciated variable. For example most people get in the habit of shooting waterfalls in one way, using long exposure to smooth the water. Even when shooting this way you can get quite different looks and textures if you vary that longer exposure. Another example: changing shutter speed when there are moving clouds can totally change the look of the sky. Whenever there are elements moving in your frame, changing exposure time will give a different look.
- Light. This variable is a bit different than the others. You don’t have nearly as much control on light as you do the others. But you do have some. The classic example is that photographer who shoots the sun as it’s setting. Then after it disappears below the horizon you look over and they’re packing up, thus missing out on alternate shots under different light. Another example: you may like a composition so much that you go out to shoot it both at sunset and sunrise. If it’s close to home you might shoot it in golden autumn light, crystalline winter light and bright spring or summer light.
There are two main points I want to make. One is that there are always options and usually enough time to get at least a vertical if not other alternate versions of the same scene. And so I recommend trying to do at least two versions of each landscape (a vertical and horizontal). I also recommend that while you’re out shooting, at least initially, you think about which variables you changed and, more importantly, why. As you become more experienced you’ll shoot alternate versions more or less unconsciously.
Next week we’ll conclude with some thoughts on post-shot review and processing of alternate versions. Thanks very much for checking in this week. Have a great weekend and happy shooting!